The four major categories of wetlands:
Marshes, Swamps, Bogs, and Fens

Many classifications fall under each of those categories.

The Great Blue Heron Nature Reserve is a combination of marsh and swamp wetland types.

MARSHES
Marshes are wetlands that are frequently or continually covered in water and predominant plant species include soft-stemmed vegetation adapted to saturated soil conditions, such as cat tails. In marshes, most of the water is received via surface water, although some marshes are also fed by groundwater. At the reserve, our cattail marshes are fed via surface and ground water. The Salwein Wetlands found in the reserve are undyked and connected to the Vedder River, so they are specially designated as undyked floodplain wetland habitat.

Across the world, there are many types of marshes ranging from prairie potholes to the Everglades, coastal to inland, freshwater to saltwater. A marsh provides multiple functions and values including recharging groundwater supplies and moderating streamflow by providing water to streams, which is especially important during periods of drought. In addition, the presence of a marsh in a watershed helps to reduce damage caused by floods by slowing and storing flood water. The Salwein Wetlands at the Great Blue Heron Nature Reserve, which are greatly comprised of cat tail marsh help to diminish impacts of flooding in this undyked floodplain wetland habitat and marsh vegetation and microorganisms also use excess nutrients for growth that would otherwise pollute surface water, such as nitrogen and phosphorous from fertilizer.

Non tidal marshes, like those found in the Great Blue Heron Nature Reserve, contain highly organic, mineral rich soils of sand, silt, and clay. Because of their high levels of nutrients, freshwater marshes are one of the most productive ecosystems on earth and can thus sustain a vast array of plant communities which, in turn, support a wide variety of wildlife. The diversity of life that is sustained within a marsh habitat is disproportionate with its size due to its incredibly high productivity. Within the marshes found in the Salwein Wetlands in the Great Blue Heron Nature Reserve, plants such as cattails, reeds and bulrushes provide excellent habitat for waterfowl and other birds such as great blue herons (blue listed species at risk) and red-winged blackbirds. Small mammals such as beavers, river otters, and muskrats also call this marsh habitat home, not to mention amphibians such as the northern red legged frog (blue listed species at risk), reptiles such as the common and northwestern garter snakes, and insects such as the damselfly and autumn meadowhawk dragonfly (red listed species at risk).

Unfortunately, the Salwein Wetlands has faced a huge amount of degradation over the years due to human development. Impacts include major reduction in size and excessive deposits of nutrients and sediment from construction and farming. Invasive plant and animal species also threaten to further reduce an already diminishing diversity. These ongoing threats highlight the importance of what we are doing at the Great Blue Heron Nature Reserve to ensure the ongoing conservation of this wetland habitat.

SWAMPS
Coming soon…